The Oldest Viola da gamba in History
This was until recently thought to be the first viola da gamba to appear on a painting in history (see below). The painting was made by Valentin Montoliu around 1475-85 for the Heremitage of St. Feliu (St. Félix) in Xàtiva (Valencia, Spain). The beautiful instrument depicted shows all of the characteristics of a viol: it has the classical outline with sloping shoulders, pronounced middle bouts and deep ribs, sound holes in the shape of the letter C with three ornamental rosettes, five strings, several (four?) frets, a very rounded bridge which permits playing the strings separately, an intricately ornamented tailpiece attached with - most likely - a gut string to the base of the instrument. Only the head of this viol is actually different from those of later instruments. Instead of a carved head or a scroll on a long pegbox with the pegs coming from the sides, this instrument has a leaf-shaped pegbox, with the pegs standing vertically. The playing position and the bow hold are very much in line with the norms of later times.
The viola da gamba was invented in the last part of the fifteenth century in the culturally heterogeneous region of Valencia, Spain, a region coinhabited by Arabs, sephardic Jews and Christians, which stimulated creativity in all branches of the arts. From Valencia the viol spread throughout the Kingdom of Aragón, reaching the Islas Baleares (Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza) and Sardinia. But Destiny had higher things in store for our infant instrument. In 1492 Rodrigo, from the Borja Family (known in Italy as the Borgia Family!), a native precisely of Xàtiva, Valencia, was elected pope. As Alexander VI he assumed the Papal Throne, bringing to Rome with him not only his army (His kingdom is of this world!) and his mistresses (not unusual for enlightened Renaissance popes...), but also his beloved consort of viols! Almost instantly the "large Spanish violas", as they were called, became the fashionble instrument for the aristocracy all over Italy, and soon also beyond its border..
On the 6th of March of 1493 Bernardino Prospero, the Ferrarese chancellor of Isabella d'Este, witnessed the following event. On the ocassion of a ceremony celebrated in Vigevano honoring the birth of the heir of Ludovico il Moro a musical performance took place, entrusted to "those Spanish musicians which the Most Reverend Monsignor Ascanio of Rome sent", who played "viols as big as I".
Jambe dr Fer, Epitome Musical (Lyon 1556)
"on appelle violes celles des quelles les gentilhommes marchants et autre gens de vertu passent leur temps "
The violin assumed a position much lower on the social scale, "few play it except those who earn their living by it."
Viola da gamba, Valencia Cathedral
Francesco Pagano & Paolo di San Leocadio, 1472
This is part of a large set of paintings on the vaulted ceiling of the Cathedral of Valencia which was recently (2004) rediscovered, having been conceiled over a period of 300 years by a second, Baroque ceiling subsequently built below it, which has now been removed, unveiling these treasures. This painting may now be considered the first iconographical evidence of a viola da gamba in history. The angel is approximately 4 meters tall. Both painters came from Italy, Pagano from Naples, di San Leocadio from Reggio in Lombardy.
The viola da mano player from the same frescoes at the Valencia Cathedral
Madre de Deu Retablo in Spanish Viola da gamba ca. 1500 (Valencia Cathedral)
Two violas da gamba from the frescos of 1562-5 in the Church of Rynkeby, Denmark
attesting to the fast dissemination of the large Spanish violas in the 16th C.
(c) Index of Christian Art, Mills-Kronborg Collection
Spanish Viola da gamba of the 17th C. (Valencia, Museum)
Gaudenzio Ferrari: Frescoes of the Cathedral of Saronno (ca. 1535)
showing an early viola da gamba in the form of a vihuela (guitar)
(see also: The earliest violins)
Viola da gamba on the ceiling fresco of St. Maria Trastevere in Rome
Present exhibition: Castello di Duino
On the Origin of the Viola da gamba(English), (German)
The Viola da gamba in Italy
The Italian Renaissance viols:
Music for Charles V and Philip II
The Viola da gamba in England
The Viola da gamba in Austria
The Viola da gamba in Germany
The Viola da gamba in France
THE VIOLA DA GAMBA: RESOURCES INDEX